Universal Oral Vaccine – Part 5 – Stolle Milk Biologics International

by Anthony di Fabio


Beck and Zimmerman,38 divide the history of immune milk discoveries into two general eras:

(1) The Peterson Era (1950-1958) where Drs. "Pete" Peterson, Barry Campbell, and colleagues at the University of Minnesota used killed bacterial antigens injected into the teat of a cow, and collected the first ten days' colostrum, as, after the tenth day milk antibodies were almost entirely absent for immunization purposes.

"Peterson's interest in human diseases was concentrated on rheumatoid arthritis and allergies…."38

Peterson’s work, and its acceptance by the scientific community, was greatly limited by the state of knowledge of immunology of the times, according to Dr. Beck.

Impro Products of Waukon, Iowa received licenses from Peterson, and went on to file some of the early patents, also supplying to this day a variety of products for use as a veterinarian product.

(2) The Stolle Era (1958 to present) began with Ralph Stolle, businessman and owner-operator of the SanMarGale Farm in Lebanon, Ohio.

Ralph Stolle was a businessman with far-reaching vision, who built his financial empire upon innovation, and who was drawn to the concept of immune milk by the work being performed by Dr. Peterson and colleagues.

Stolle early concluded that the Peterson method of introducing antigens through the bovine's teats had commercial drawbacks, and he set out to develop new methods that would permit system-wide standardization of the vaccination of antigens, separation of antibodies and other transfer factors, their safe storage and later use by humans.

That Stolle Biologics International and their team of scientists – Lee R. Beck, PhD, President, Daniel A. Gingerich, DVM, MS, Peter Fuhrer, PhD, Director of Biochemistry, Robert Stohrer, PhD, Associate Director Biotechnology Division, and others – were successful is testified to by the more than 300 patents granted to Stolle Biological. These patents cover methods of production and composition of immune milk, isolation of anti-inflammatory factors, methods for treating vascular and pulmonary systems, prevention and treatment of arthritis, treating protozoal gastrointestinal disorders, production of immune suppressive product, passive immunization of mammals using avian and/or bovine antibodies, antibodies derived from bovid milk and avian egg, general mammal immunization, dental caries inhibiting products, deodorants containing antibacterial antibodies, longevity factors, prevention of suppression of t-lymphocyte functions, protein antibodies derived from bovid serum, and use of honey as a vaccine.

These patents were filed and granted in the United States as well as in many foreign countries and, indeed, Stolle also formed a limited partnership with the New Zealand Dairy Board, where uncontaminated milk reigns supreme.

Using Stolle technology, the New Zealand Dairy Board inoculates cows with a wide range of standardized bacterial antigens, and, without interruption of the flow of milk and milk products, produces a dried, standardized, pasteurized whey substance that is then packaged and sold in Taiwan, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, and Hong Kong, with plans to broaden nutrient supplement sales in other countries, as well as to increase the range of protective substances and their means of delivery.


Method Used by Stolle Milk Biologics and New Zealand Dairy Board to Produce Nutrient Substances Containing Large Quantities of Antibodies and Anti-Inflammatory Factors for Human Use

As described in "Reporting on a Collagen-Induced Arthritis Model in Mice" by Japan Rheumatism Association, Tokyo, Japan, December 13, 1997, "S100" was the designation for specially prepared milk to be tested. In the study referenced by the Japanese Rheumatism association, using double-blind procedures, arthritis scores were highest in the control group, with arthritis symptoms significantly reduced (p<0.05) in all immune milk groups. Information and sketches obtained from Stolle Milk Biologics International, Blue Ash, Ohio.

Cows are inoculated using standardized vaccines containing known antibodies. The cream is drawn from the milk from which ice cream and butter are made. Skim milk is then processed further by addition of rennet to produce casein, cheese and whey.

Whey is further separated by ultrafiltration into "Whey Protein Concentrate" (containing high molecular weight proteins and IgG antibodies) and "permeate" (containing low molecular weight proteins and anti-inflammatory factors).

The permeate is run through an ion exchange column washed with 0.15 Moles NaCl, then freeze dried.

Permeate and antibodies are combined together after removing the lactose from the permeate, producing "Whey Protein Isolate," a product that is spray dried and sold as a commercial product.

Numerous research studies clearly show that the Stolle products have desirable impact on strengthening the immune system, but, of course, none are aimed at solving a specific disease condition, such as Lyme arthritis disease, surely the next great commercial step in the immune history saga.

Dr. Struss reports that a method other than rennet was used by original researchers. This was glacial acetic acid. They found that the agglutinating titers were higher than when using rennet, which is a proteolytic enzyme. This resulted in a larger quantity of specific antibodies and complement. When using only rennet, the casein had to be washed out or dissolved to obtain its entrapped antibodies/complements.

In a trip to New Zealand (1999), Herbert Struss, PhD reports that two kinds of colostrum are produced, disease specific and non-specific colostrum.



This issue and another earlier issue has serialized "Universal Oral Vaccine: The Immune Milk Saga!" It may seem like a lot of words for treatments that are not widely known, and perhaps difficult to obtain. So, why did Anthony di Fabio travel more than 7,500 miles (4,500 by automobile) just to chase down the facts reported?

The "miracle" of colostrum has been known for several generations. It seems as though "everyone and his uncle," is touting and has touted the great benefits of colostrum, and colostrum is sold everywhere: veterinary supply stores, health food stores, pyramid marketing schemes, special preparations with herbs, and so on.

Well, if it's so marvelous, and also so widely known, then why do so many continue to suffer from allergies, cancer, arthritis, and so on? Why don't the afflicted simply purchase the stuff either from a health food store, or in response to an advertisement or other marketing scheme? And then, why aren't they miraculously cured?

Finding the answers to these questions constituted di Fabio's long search, and also revealed a great deal of misinformation about colostrum.

America seems to be the great depository and home for medical nostrums, and other frontier medicines. One branch of these nostrums grew into our internationally allied pharmaceutical companies that dominate the nature of medical practices through patented drugs. The other branch, often unpatented – but not always – is reflected by hundreds of thousands of "natural" remedies. Colostrum, and its products are representative of this branch, but can also be found on both sides of the patent spectrum.

Anthony di Fabio discovered that there's a serious problem when purchasing colostrum from many sources, no matter how much a particular product is touted to be effective. The ingredients in a particular brand label have not been designed by the cow to be specific against the microorganism that is causing the disease or affliction in the buyer! Among hundreds of millions, nay, trillions of different inimical microorganisms, can one be sure that the over-the-market colostrum contains the ingredients that were especially designed by the cow to fight a particular disease caused by a specific strain of microorganism or allergy caused by a particular pollen?

Oh, sure, it contains another ten thousand or so immune enhancing factors some of which might be needed by the individual purchaser, but so do a lot of other natural products such as carrots, beets, cabbage, broccoli, etc., as well as a large variety of herb. Who shall say which among these choices is most immune enhancing for a particular individual?

Home-grown utilizations, represented by dairy-man Herb Saunders and initially researched by Herb Struss, PhD, and University of Minnesota scientists, really got specific to the individual patient. By inserting patient's blood in the cow's cistern, the cow had no choice but to develop exactly the right complement and antibodies needed for any infection, or combination of infections or allergies, as a number of happy patients have learned.

Another most serious problem is this: Suppose a cow has been challenged at just the right time with a form of Staphylococcus that creates a specific infectious disease. By the time the colostrum has been shipped, stored and degraded over time throughout trucking, hot warehousing, and other marketing practices, one would be lucky indeed to find any viable complement, the substance necessary to fight that particular infection. As it is with important Lactobaccilus acidophilus, I suspect that these proteins can be degraded easily without careful, gentle handling and refrigeration.

Anthony di Fabio found much outright huxtering based on exaggerations and sometimes misunderstandings by those with otherwise good intentions, and, surprisingly, found also a great deal of solid, evidence-based research on products sold worldwide. This solid research actually began at the University of Minnesota and extended throughout the 1960's by several groups. Had the FDA and the Department of Agriculture played square, these folks possibly would have furnished cheap easy-to-use supplements that would have considerably decreased the growth of the patent medicine empire.

One of the most astounding outcomes from this early research period came through studies demonstrating that homeopathic remedies made from properly prepared colostrum would cure cattle of a variety of diseases, and would also protect mice from otherwise deadly pathogens.

If these studies are true – and also the studies of Philip Derse of Derse & Schroeder Associates – demonstrating that immune enhancing agents called "transfer factors" and "complement" can be obtained from properly challenged cow's milk itself when also properly treated, that it can be freeze dried and packaged safely – then the technology already exists to create an abundance of extremely cheap antigen-specific colostrum. It can be safely shipped throughout the world, and can be made into homeopathic remedies that would lessen humanity's reliance on profit-hungry pharmaceutical monopolies.

To some extent, the second phase was picked up by Stolle Company as well as Quantum Research, Inc. – and I'm sure others.

Stolle Company approached the problem in a way that permitted them to utilize the New Zealand Dairy Board production facilities. They inoculated cows and drained off the desired molecules without interrupting the flow of normal daily products.

Quantum Research, Inc., in a different vein, represents an approach that has clearly shown successful and amazing clinical results for a wide spectrum of degenerative diseases, cancer to chronic fatigue syndrome and other afflictions.

Through periodic laboratory measures of the activity of natural killer cells, their physician associates have been able to correlate increased activity with decrease in the disease and its symptoms. (Please note: this is not a natural killer cell count, but rather a measure of activity of the killer cells already present in the patient.) The tests and stimulating supplement are not inexpensive, and results may take a year or so to gradually demonstrate effectiveness in some immune-weakened cases – but, considering the alternatives, this is indeed a "miraculous" result from colostrum.

References are often boring and uninteresting, unless you happen to be in need of several of them. We've included all the references to our paper so that you can see for yourself the tremendous amount of work that has been accomplished with colostrum, as well as results of the studies using homeopathic preparations for challenged mice, and sick cows, reference number 44.

While you're at it, also read the "Background and Summary" at the beginning of the references.

The world is immersed in colostrum products and claims for these products. Some of these claims are valid, and many are simply exaggerated, or based on unreliable testimony. A few are superb, backed up by legitimate results.

"Universal Oral Vaccine: The Immune Milk Saga!" is not a definitive article, but does seem to sample a broad spectrum of activity!

By the way: One family, on reading this article in The Arthritis Trust of America newsletters, and lacking a source for properly prepared colostrum but having access to a dairy cow, contacted one of the scientists reported herein, and has then been able to prepare their own specific colostrum by injecting their own blood into a cow just prior to calving. They've achieved remarkable results in a short time period, apparently solving some of their health problems.


Background and Summary

Partial List of Publications, Studies and Patents

Except for an abandoned patent petition number 628,987, filed October 25, 1945, by August Helm (Merck Chemicals sponsor), the original work on development of cows'-milk vaccine, called "Immune Milk," was performed at the University of Minnesota, School of Biochemistry, under the direction of the patent assignees. (Porter: Biological Abstracts 1953, p. 951 , par. 10, 185). In August, 1951, Dr. Porter, then "working on his doctoral thesis, suggested the possibility of manufacturing antibodies in the cow's udder by infusion of antigen into the udder of a lactating cow."

The earliest patent seems to be that of patent number 587,849, December 1, 1959 in Canada by William E. Petersen of St. Paul, Minnesota and Berry Campbell of Monrovia, California.

The International Association on Immunity was founded in 1963 by Herbert Struss, PhD, William E. Peterson, PhD, and Robert Meade. That Association published three issues of Journal of Immune Milk. In the first journal Campbell and Peterson summarized "The Current Picture," a resume of the history of knowledge of immunity up through 1961; and that issue, as well as the two following, published patents found in footnotes, as well as articles by others. Intent was, according to Dr. Struss,31 also editor of the Journal, to follow up with an issue on Russian research as well as that on viruses by Dr. Mitchell, DVM, PhD in Canada.

Dr. Mitchell had performed almost identical work to that of Dr. Peterson but on viruses, especially Newcastle's disease, and, according to Dr. Struss,31 his work was "just fantastic.

Herbert Struss, PhD31 published "Immune Milk Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis – Review" June 1964.

Arthur E. Dracy published "Immune Milk in the Treatment of Poison Ivy" June 1965.

Herbert Struss published "A History of the Use of Immune Milk in the Treatment of Felt Pollenosis" in June 1965.

On April 968, patent number 3,376,198,6 "Method of Producing Antibodies in Milk," was granted to William E. Petersen, St. Paul, Minnesota and Berry Campbell, Monrovia, California, assigned to Collins Products, Inc., Waukon, Iowa.

Gregory B. Wilson and Gary V. Paddock, both of Mount Pleasant, North Carolina, were granted patent number 4,816,563, "Process for Obtaining Transfer Factor From Colostrum, Transfer Factor So Obtained and Use Thereof," March 28, 1989.

Robert A. Collins and Philip E Weighner of Waukon, Iowa, were granted patent number 4,843,065 June 27, 1989 for "Method of Producing Products for Use in the Treatment of Bacterial and/or "Virus Infections."

Robert A. Collins of Waukon, Iowa was granted patent number 5,102,669; April 7, 1992 for "Method of Producing Remedies and Products of the Method."

Giancarlo Pizza, Caterina De Vinic and H. Hugh Fudenberg published "Transfer Factor in Malignancy," Progress in Drug Research, Vol. 42, in 1993. This was a joint paper by S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy, and NeuroImmuno Therapeutics Research Foundation, Spartanburg, South Carolina.

H. Hugh Fudenberg, PhD and Giancarlo Pizza, PhD. have summarized a great deal of their own original research, "Transfer Factor 1993: New Frontiers" in Progress in Drug Research, Vol. 42 on behalf of the NeuroImnuno Therapeutics Research Foundation, Spartanburg, South Carolina. Therein it is concluded that bovine colostrum milk is almost the ideal source for obtaining protective factor.

In 1994, H. Hugh Fudenberg, PhD published "Heterogeneity of Alzheimer's Disease: An Interpretive Review, in Molecular Neurobiology" in Human Press, Inc.


Additional Scientific Studies

Cured or protected according to referenced patents were mice, cows, goats, chickens and pigs.

Covered by Complement Patents: For allergy prevention, one can use a mixture of hair (cats, dogs, cattle), making a vaccine. (Many milk-producing farmers become allergic to cow's hair.) Other allergens, such as pollens, can also be introduced, such that many other allergies can be beneficially affected.

Covered by Complement Patents: It's also good for chickenpox, cold sores, genital herpes, Cryptocides sporidium, and for anti-inflammatory conditions, as it is heavy with complement and anti-complement (C3B), substances that assist in the destruction of invasive organisms.

Covered by Complement Factors: It is currently being used for treatment against candidiasis.

Covered by Complement Factors: Early work using the described principle for Rheumatoid Arthritis involved dead staphylococcus and streptococcus organisms injected as antigens into the cow's cistern. The successful results strongly support the theory of an infectious character of Rheumatoid Arthritis. As many forms of Rheumatoid Diseases and related diseases seem to have an infectious and/or allergenic component, such as ankylosing spondilitis, candidiasis, Crohn's disease, fibrositis, fibromyalgia, food allergies, rhinitis, and so on, this form of protection may be all-inclusive, inexpensive, and all-important.

Complement Factors: According to one spokesperson,6 "The homeopathic remedy derived from this process has been found useful for various forms of arthritis.

Beta-lactoGlobulin: In work supported by the National Institutes of Health and by Philip Morris Cos.,11 "A modified version of a protein extracted from whey blocked the AIDS virus from infecting cells in the test tube," according to Dr. Robert Neurath, head of the laboratory of Biochemical Virology at the Lindsley E. Kimball Research Institute of the New York Blood Center.

"Scientists modified a whey protein called beta-lactoglobulin to produce a substance called B69, which they discovered latched onto a protein structure called CD4 on the surface of cells." This prevented the AIDS virus from using CD4 as an entryway into the cells.

(Dr. Jeffrey Laurence, an AIDS researcher at Cornell Medical College in New York, cautioned that HIV can infect some cells without using the CD4 gateway. A growing number of scientists and physicians have come to doubt the existence of a virus having the deadly characteristics attributed to HIV, but believe that AIDS symptoms point to an overwhelmed immune system, not to a specific virus.)



1. Charles A. Janeway, Jr., M.D., "How the Immune System Recognizes Invaders," Scientific American, September 1993, p. 73.

2. Congressman Berkely Bedell, "Bedell Testifies Before U.S., Senate" Townsend Letter for Doctors, 911 Tyler St., Port Townsend, WA, 98368-6541, December 1993, p. 1229.

3. Personal letter from Berkley Bedell July 18, 1994; also personal interview.

4. "Picking Out the Lymes From the Lemons," Townsend Letter for Doctors, 911 Tyler St., Port Townsend, WA. 98368-6541, May 1993, p. 408; reprint from Science News.

5. "Minnesota Milk-Cure Case Ends with Mistrial," Townsend Letter for Doctors, 911 Tyler St., Port Townsend, Washington, 98368- 6541, August/September 1995, p. 81; from Minneapolis Star Tribune, 3/16/95.

6. Personal interview with, and correspondence from a scientist who chooses not to be identified.

7. See Gus J. Prosch, Jr., MD., Candidiasis: Scourge of Arthritics, The Arthritis Fund/The Rheumatoid Disease Foundation, The Arthritis Fund/The Rheumatoid Disease Foundation, 5106 Old Harding Road Franklin, TN 37064, 1994.

8. Stephen Tobin, D.V.M., "Lyme Disease," Townsend Letter for Doctors, 911 Tyler St., Port Townsend, WA, 98368-6541, January 1993, p. 63.

9. See Fred S. Kantor, "Disarming Lyme Disease," Scientific American, 415 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10017-1111, September 1994, p. 34.

10. Pearl Atkin, R.N., M.A., CS, "My Experience With Lyme Disease," Townsend Letter for Doctors, 911 Tyler St., Port Townsend, WA, 98368-6541, November 1992, p. 997.

11. Malcolm Ritter, "Whey Could Prevent HIV Infection," Wisconsin State Journal, January 31, 1996, quoting the February Nature Medicine.

12. Pearl Atkin, R.N., M.A, CS, "Treatment of Lyme Disease," Townsend Letter for Doctors, 911 Tyler St., Port Townsend, WA, 98368-6541., December 1993, p. 1220.

13. Burton Goldberg Group, Alternative Medicine: The Definitive Guide, Future Medicine Publishing Co., Inc., 10124 18th St., Court E, Puyallup, WA 98371.

14. "Malaria Therapy: A Cure for Cancer and Aids?" Journal of Longevity Research, Vol.l/No. 2, December 1994, p. 8.

15. Anthony di Fabio, Lyme Disease: Arthritis by Infection, The Art of Getting Well, The Arthrtis Fund/The Rheumatoid Disease Foundation, 5106 Old Harding Road, Franklin, TN 37064, 1994,

16. Textbook of Internal Medicine, J.B. Lippincott Company, East Washington Square, Philadelphia, PA 19105, 1989.

17. Personal communication with Herbert Saunders, Calvin Johnson, Atty. Bob Collins, Paul Weighner, MS patient, Herbert Struss, Ph.D., Diane Miller, Atty.

18. From references quoted in Patent 4,816,563, March 28, 1989.

19. T. Ebina, et. al., Med Microbiol Immunol, Springer-Verlag. 173:87-93, 1984.

20. Berry Campbell, William E. Petersen, "Immune Milk," Journal of Immune Milk, Volume 1, Number 1, International Association on Immunity, 2651 University Avenue, St. Paul, Minnesota, p.3, June 1964.

21. E. Petersen, "Immunity From Milk," Ibid, p. 29.

22. B. Sekla, E. Holeckova, "Diathelic Immunization of Sheep Against a Rat Cancer" Journal of Immune Milk, Volume 1, Number 2, Op. Cit., December 1964; Reprinted from Nature, Vol. 185, February 27, 1960, p. 618-619.

23. Herbert E. Struss, "Immune Milk Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis - Review," Ibid, p. 23.

24. R.M. Porter, Ph.D., "The Protective Milk Concept," Certified Milk, Volume 35, No. 3, Certified Milk Magazine, 405 Lexington Ave., New York, NY, May-June 1960, p. 6.

25. H. Hugh Fudenberg and Giancarlo Pizza, "Transfer Factor 1993: New Frontiers," Progress in Drug Research, Vol. 42, Birkhauser Verlag Basel (Switzerland), 1994. From, FFAP. Miller: "Immunologic Significance of the Thymus in Adult Mouse." Nature 195, 1318 (1962).

26. Ibid; From H.S. Lawrence: "The Transfer in Humans of Delay at Skin Sensitivity to Streptococcal M Substance and to Tuberculin with Disrupted Leukocytes," J. Clin. Invest. 34, 219 (1955).

27. Ibid; Also from H.H. Fudenberg and H. L. Fudenberg: Past, Present, and Future in Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, p. 475-516, ed. E. Jucker, Birkauser Verlag; Basel, Switzerland (1989).

28. Ibid; Also Peng, Li-yi, Yang Dao-li, QiFa-lian, Jia Bo-sen, Wang Bao-cheng Due Gung-zu: "Efficiency and Immunotogical Function Observation on 100 Cases Malignant tumor Treated with Dialyzable Placenta Extracts" in Recent Advances in Transfer Factor and Dialyzable Leucocyte Extracts, p. 354-5, ed. T. Fujisawa, S., Sasakawa, Y. Iikura, E Komatsu, Y. Yamagumi, Maruzen Co. Ltd.; Tokyo, Japan (1992).

29. Taken from instructions and capsule labels furnished by Herbert Struss, Ph.D. used in the original studies and also from article, Cyril M. Smith, M.D., "Immune Milk in the Treatment of the Rheumatoid Arthritis Syndrome," Journal of Immune Milk, Volume I, Number 1, International Association on Immunity, 2651 University Avenue, St. Paul, MN, June 1964.

30. Paul K. Pybus, Dr., The Herxheimer Effect, The Arthritis Fund/The Rheumatoid Disease Foundation, 5106 Old Harding Road, Franklin, TN 37064.

31. Symbiotics™ Homepage (www.symbioticsllc.com)

32. Sarah Richardson, "Licking Infections," Discover, Vol. 17, Number 1, January 1996, p. 18.

33. 38. C. Norman Shealy, M.D., Ph.D., et.al., "Osteoarthritic Pain: A Comparison of Homeopathy and Acetaminophen," American Journal of Pain Management, Vol. 8, No. 3, July 1998.

34. The U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia; Impro Products Co., Inc., vs John R. Block Secretary of the United States (Civil No. 81-1284, July 9, 1982; July 28, 1982; Sept 2, 1982.)

35. Tom Tauke, "Iowa Woman Wins 20-year Battle With Bureaucracy," Des Moines Sunday Register, November 18, 1984.

36. Patents used as source materials:

36a. US Patent Office October 25, 1945 – 628,987

36b. Canadian Patent Office December 1, 1959 – 587,849

36c. U.S. Patent Office April 2, 1968 – 3,376,198

36d. U.S. Patent Office April 18, 1981 – 4,284,623

36e. U.S. Patent Office September 6, 1983 – 4,402,938

36f. U.S. Patent Office March 28, 1989 – 4,816,563

36g. U.S. Patent Office June 27, 1989 – 4,843,065

36h. U.S. Patent Office April 2, 1991 – 33,565

36I. U.S. Patent Office April 7, 1992 – 5,102,669

Those who are interested in receiving copies of the above may order them from the U.S. Patent office.

37. Other Important Papers Used as Source Material:

37a. W.E. Petersen, "Immune Milk Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis - Review," Journal of Immune Milk, Vol. 1, Number 1, W.E. Petersen Research Institute, International Association of Immunity, 2651 University Avenue, St. Paul, MN, June 1064 [Out of Print].

37b. W.E. Petersen, "A History of the Use of Immune Milk in the Treatment of Fall Pollenosis," Journal of Immune Milk, Vol. II, Number 1, W.E. Petersen Research Institute, International Association of Immunity, 2651 University Avenue, St. Paul, MN, June 1965 [Out of Print].

37c. Arthur E. Dracy [Brookings, South Dakota], "Immune Milk in the Treatment of Poison Ivy," Journal of Immune Milk, Vol. II , Number 1, W.E. Petersen Research Institute, International Association of Immunity, 2651 University Avenue, St. Paul, MN, June 1964 [Out of Print].

38. Ralph J. Stolle, Lee R. Beck, Ph.D., Stolle Immune Milk, Stolle Milk Biologics, Int., 6954 Comell Road, Cincinnati, OH 45242, 1980.

39. Confidential Descriptive Memorandum, The Offering of Stolle Milk Biologics International. L.P., Dominick & Dominick.

40. Trevor Lyons, B.D.S. (U. Lend.), L.D.S., R.C.S. (Eng.), R.M. (C.C.M.), Eleanor Stanfield, B.A., Introduclion to Protozoa and Fungi in Periodontal Infections, 45 Rosebery Avenue, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1S 1W1, 1989.

41. Anthony di Fabio, Gus J. Prosch, Jr., M.D., Arthritis: Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Disease, Including Rheumatoin Arthritis, The Arthntis Trust, 7111 Sweetgum Drive SW, Suite A, Fairview, TN 37062-9384, 1997, p. 106.

42. Lida H. Mattman, Ph.D., Cell Wall Deficient Forms: Stealth Pathogens. 2nd edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1993.

43. Personal correspondence from Lida H. Mattman, Ph.D.

44. Tables from early patent.